1. E.C. Brevik, et al, The interdisciplinary nature of soil, Soil Journal, 1, 117–129 (2015).
2. E.F. Dai, et al, Detecting the storage and change on topsoil organic carbon in grasslands of Inner Mongolia from 1980s to 2010s, Acta Geographica Sinica. 24 (6), 1035-1046 (2014).
3. E.G. Gregorich, et al, Chemical and biological characteristics of physically uncomplexed organic matter, Soil Science Society American Journal, 70, 975-985 (2006).
4. N. Eskandari, A. Alizadeh, F. Mahdavi, Policies of Rangeland Management in Iran (Rangeland Technical Office), Pooneh Press (2008) (in Persian).
5. M.M. Khalighi, N. Khalighi, M. Farahpoor, Study of ecological and social sustenability of different land management senarios (Case study: Karaj river watershed). Iranian journal of Range and Desert Reseach, 13(2), 82-93 (2006) (in Persian).
6. H. Azarnivand, et al, Locate and programs rangeland restore and reform with using from GIS and compared that with proposed projects in Range Management rangeland projects in Lar region, Rangeland Journal, 3(2), 159- 168 (2007).
7. R. Brooks, Carbon Sequestration What’s that? Journal of Forest Management, 32, 2-4 (1998).
8. R. Lal, Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change, Geoderma, 123, 1-22 (2004).
9. A. Mahmoudi Taleghani, et al, Estimation of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Managed Forests (Case Study of Gonbad Forest in the North of Iran). Forest and Poplar Quarterly, 241-252 (2007) (in Persian).
10. EA. Paul, SJ. Morris, S. Bohm, The determination of soil C pool sizes and turnover rates: biophysical fractionation and tracers. In: Lal R, et al. (ed) Assessment methods for soil carbon. Lewis Publ, Boca Raton, FL,
11. H.H. Cheng, J.M. Kimble, Characterization of soil organic carbon pools, In Assessment methods for soil carbon, ed. R. Lal, J. M. Kimble, R. F. Follett, and B. A. Stewart, 117–129. Boca Raton, Fl.: Lewis Publishers (2001).
12. M.R. Carter, Soil Quality for Sustainable Land Management: Organic Matter and Aggregation Interactions that Maintain Soil Functions, Agronomy Journal, 94, 38-47 (2002).
13. R. Lal, Impacts of climate on soil systems and soil systems on climate. The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio, USA, Edited by Norman Uphoff. Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems. 617–636 (2006).
14. J.A. Mathieu, et al, Deep soil carbon dynamics are driven more by soil type than by climate: a worldwide meta‐analysis of radiocarbon profiles, Global change biology, 21(11), 4278-4292 (2015).
15. SW. Leavitt, RF. Follett, EA. Paul, Estimation of slow- and fast-cycling soil organic carbon pools from 6N HCl hydrolysis. Radiocarbon, 38(2), 231–239 (1996).
16. S. Trumbore, J. Vogel, J. Southon, AMS 14C measurement of fractionated soil
organic matter: an approach to deciphering the soil carbon cycle. Radiocarbon, 31(3), 644–654 (1989).
17. B. Ahrens, et al, Bayesian calibration of a soil organic carbon model using 14C measurements of soil organic carbon and heterotrophic respiration as joint constraints, Biogeosciences, 11, 2147–2168 (2014).
18. A. Elzein, J. Balesdent, Mechanistic simulation of vertical- distribution of carbon concentrations and residence times in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59, 1328–1335 (1995).
19. JA. Van Veen, EA. Paul, Organic carbon dynamics in grassland soils. 1. Background information and computer simulation. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 61(2), 185–201 (1981).
20. P.L. Staddon, Carbon isotopes in functional soil ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(3), 148-154 (2004).
21. F. Marzaioli, er al, Comparison of different soil organic matter fractionation methodologies: Evidences from ultrasensitive 14C measurements, Nucl. Instru. Meth. Phy. Res. B, 268, 1062-1066 (2010).
22. J. Rethemeyer, et al, Age heterogeneity of soil organic matter, Nucl. Instru. Meth. Phy. Res. B. 521–527 (2004).
23. Y. Wang, Y.P. Hsieh, Uncertainties and novel properties in the study of the carbon dynamics, Chemosphere, 49, 791-804 (2002).
24. EA. Paul, H.P. Collins, S.W. Leavitt, Dynamics of resistant soil carbon of Midwestern agricultural soils measured by naturally occurring 14C abundance, Geoderma, 104, 239–256 (2001).
25. J. Leifeld, J. Fuhrer, Long-term management effects on soil organic matter in two cold, high-elevation grasslands: clues from fractionation and radiocarbon dating, Eur. J. Soil Sci. 60, 230–239 (2009).
26. Anonymous, Yearbook of meteorological status of Khuzestan Province, Iranian Meteorological Organization, Research Division of Khuzestan Province, (2015) (in Persian).
27. N. Nikghadam, SJ. Mofidi shemirani, M. Taherbaz, Analysis of climate classifications in southern Iran based on Koppen-trewartha method and Givonis' bioclimatic index, Armanshahr Architecture and Urban Development, 8(15), 119-130 (2015) (in Persian).
28. M.H. Banaii, Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes Map, Soil and Water Research Institute of Iran. Tehran, (1998) (in Persian).
29. J.D. Rhoades, Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved soils. In D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, 417-435 (1996).
30. H.D. Chapman, Cation-exchange capacity, In: C.A. Black (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis - hemical and microbiological properties, Agronomy, 891-901 (1965).
31. G.W. Gee, J.W. Bauder, Particle size analysis. In: A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. American Society of Agronomy. Inc. Madison, WI, USA, 383-411 (1986).
32. G.W. Thomas, Soil pH and soil acidity. In: D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI, 475-490 (1996).
33. A. Walkley, I.A. Black, An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method, Soil Science, 63, 251-263 (1934).
34. G.J. Blair, R.D.B. Lefroy, L. Lisle, Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 46, 1459-1466 (1995).
35. E.D. Vance, P.C. Brookes, D.S. Jenkinson, An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 703-707 (1987).
36. A. Ghani, M. Dexter, K.W. Perrott, Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 1231-1243 (2003).
37. D.W. Nelson, L.E. Sommers, Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: A.L. Page (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, 539-579 (1982).
38. C.B. Ramsey, Methods for summarizing radiocarbon datasets. Radiocarbon, 59(6), 1809-1833 (2017).
39. PJ. Reimer, et al, IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4), 1869–1887 (2013).
40. J.B. Wei, et al, Spatial variability of soil properties in relation to land use and topography in a typical small watershed of the black soil region, northeastern China. Environmental Geology, 53, 1663-1672 (2008).
41. D. Shahriari Geraei, et al, Total and labile forms of soil organic carbon as affected by land use change in southwestern Iran. Geoderma. Reg. 7, 29-37 (2016).
42. S.W. Culman, et al, Permanganate oxidizable carbon reflects a processed soil fraction that is sensitive to management. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 76, 494-504 (2012).
43. Soil Survey Staff, Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 10th ed. U. S. Department of Agriculture -Natural Resources Conservation Service, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 333 (2014).
44. World Reference Base for Soil Resources, ISBN: 92-5-105511-4. A framework for international classification, correlation and communication, Rome, Italy (2014).
45. R.J. Haynes, Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of agricultural soils: An overview. Advances in Agronomy, 85, 221-268 (2005).
46. W. Dai, Y. Huang, Relation of soil organic matter concentration to climate and altitude in zonal soils of Chin. Catena, 65, 87- 94 (2006).
47. J.G. Kalambukattu, et al, Soil carbon pools and carbon management index under different land use systems in the central Himalayan region, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B, Soil and Plant Science, 63 (3), 200-205 (2013).
48. D.K. Benbi, et al, Total and labile pools of soil organic carbon in cultivated and undisturbed soils in northern India, Geoderma, 237, 149-158 (2015).
49. J. Chen, et al, Grazing exclusion reduced soil respiration but increased its temperature sensitivity in a Meadow Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, Ecology and Evolution, 6(3), 675-687 (2016).
50. G.P. Souza, C.C. Figueiredo, D.M.G. Sousa, Relationships between labile soil organic carbon fractions under different soil management systems. Scientia Agricola, 73(6), 535-542 (2016).
51. B.T. Christensen, Physical fractionation of soil organic matter in primary particle size and density separates, Advances in Soil Science, 20, 1-90 (1992).
52. J.C. Neff, et al, Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecological Applications, 15, 87-95 (2005).
53. K. Lorenz, R. Lal, M.J. Shipitalo, Chemical stabilization of organic carbon pools in particle size fractions in no-till and meadow soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 1043-1051 (2008).
54. E.J.W. Wattel‐Koekkoek, et al, Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite, European Journal of Soil Science, 54(2), 269-278 (2003).
55. S.M.F. Rabbi, et al, Mean residence time of soil organic carbon in aggregates under contrasting land uses based on radiocarbon measurements. Radiocarbon, 55(1), 127-139 (2013).
56. E. Jobbagy, R. Jackson, The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its
relation to climate and vegetation, Ecological Applications, 10, 423–436 (2000).
57. M. Wiesmeier, et al, Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools for major soil units and land uses in southeast Germany
(Bavaria). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 185, 208–220 (2014).
58. M. Wiesmeier, et al, Land use effects on organic carbon storage in soils of Bavaria:
The importance of soil types. Soil and Tillage Research, 146, 296–302 (2015).
59. I. Kögel-Knabner, et al, Organo-mineral associations in temperate soils: Integrating biology, mineralogy, and organic matter chemistry. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 171, 61-82 (2008).
60. CM. Monreal, HR. Schulten, H. Kodama, Age, turnover and molecular diversity of soil organic matter in aggregates of a Gleysol. Canadian Journal of Soil Sciences, 77, 379-388 (1997).
61. M. Von Lützow, et al, Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: Mechanisms
and their relevance under different soil conditions, A review, Europeean Journal of Soil Science, 57, 426–445 (2006).
62. G.A. Buyanovsky, M. Aslam, G.H. Wagner, Carbon turnover in soil physical fractions, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58(4), 1167-1173 (1994).
63. J. Balesdent, G.H. Wagner, A. Mariotti, Soil organic matter turnover in long-term field experiments as revealed by carbon-13 natural abundance, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52(1), 118-124 (1988).
64. T. Ohno, et al, 14C mean residence time and its relationship with thermal stability and molecular composition of soil organic matter: A case study of deciduous and coniferous forest types, Geoderma, 308, 1-8 (2017).
65. Y. Wang, R. Amundson, S. Trumbore, The impact of land use change on C turnover
in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 45–57 (1999).