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Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Abstract

Zirconium molybdate gel has an excellent characteristic to be used as a column matrix material of 99mTc generators. The preparation conditions of zirconium molybdate gels will directly influence their physico-chemical characteristics and thus generator performances. In this work a series of zirconium molybdate gels were synthesized under different conditions and characterized by ICP, TGA, XRD and SEM Techniques. The effects of different parameters including pH of molybdate solution, Zr:Mo molar ratios, order of reactants addition, washing and granulating of gel on the performance of technetium-99m generators were evaluated. The experiments show that the optimum conditions for synthesis of the gel consist of: pH=4-4.5, Zr:Mo ratio of 1:1, gradual addition of molybdate solution to zirconium oxy chloride solution, no washing and grinding the resulted gel.

Highlights

 

  1. 1.    Alternate Technologies for 99mTc generator, IAEA TECDOC-852, IAEA, Vienna (1995).

 

  1. 2.    W.C. Eckman, B.M. Coursey, “Technetium-99m generators, chemistry and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals,” Int J Appl Radiat. Isot. 33, 793-890 (1982).

 

  1. 3.    R.E. Boyd, “Recent developments in generators of 99mTc,” Radiopharmaceuticals & labelled compounds 3-26 (1973).

 

  1. 4.    R.E. Boyd, “Technetium-99m generators- the available options,” Int. J. Appl Radiat. Isot, 33, 801-810 (1982).

 

  1. 5.    W.H. Briner, C.C. Harris, “Radionuclide contamination of eluates from fission-product molybdenum-technetium generators,” J. Nuc. Med, 15, 466-467 (1974).

 

  1. 6.    E. Shikata, A. Iguchi, “Production of 99Mo and its application in nuclear medicine,” Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, 102 (2), 533–550 (1986).

 

  1. 7.    R.K. Barnes, R.E. Boyd, “The chromatographic extraction and purification of 99Mo from uranium solution,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 33, 479-481 (1982).

 

  1. 8.    J.V. Evans, P.W. Moore, M.E. Shying, J.M. Sodeau, “Zirconium Molybdate Gel as generator for Technetium-99m I. The concept and its evaluation,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 38 (1), 19–23 (1987).

 

  1. 9.    M.T. El Kolaly, “A 99Mo-99mTc generator based on the use of zirconium molybdophosphate-99Mo gel,” J. Radioanal, Nucl. Chem, Articles 170 (2), 293–298 (1993).

 

  1. 10.              M.A. Absy, M. El Nagar, A.I. Audah, “Technetium-99m generators based on neutron irradiated 12-molybdocerate as column matrix,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, Articles 183 (2), 339–350 (1994).

 

  1. 11.              Y.F. Shafiq, Z.M. Yousif, “Characteristics and Behavior of a 99Mo/99mTc Generator using irradiated Titanium Molybdate as column matrix,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, letters 199 (3) 173-181 (1995).

 

 

 

 

  1. R.E. Boyd, “Gel generator: a viable alternative source of 99mTc for nuclear medicine,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48 (8), 1027–1033 (1997).

     

  2. F. Monroy-Guzmán, L.V. Díaz-Archundia, A. Contreras Ramírez, “Effect of Zr:Mo ratio on 99mTc generator performance based on zirconium molybdate gels,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 59 (1), 27-34 (2003).

     

  3. P.L. Brown, G.R. Erickson, J.V. Evans, “The chemical characterization of zirconium Molybdate gels,” Colloids and Surfaces, 62 (1-2), 11-21 (1992).

     

  4. M.R. Davarpanah, S. Attar Nosrati, M. Fazlali, M. Kazemi Boudani, H. Khoshhosn, M. Ghannadi Maragheh, “Influence of drying conditions of zirconium molybdate gel on performance of 99mTc gel generator,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 67 (10), 1796-1801 (2009).

     

  5. C. Duval, “Inorganic Thermogravimetric Analysis,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 315  (1963).

     

  6. W.B. Blumenthal, “The Chemical Behaviour of Zirconium,” D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc, Canada, 164–200 (1958).

 

Keywords

  1.  

    1. 1.    Alternate Technologies for 99mTc generator, IAEA TECDOC-852, IAEA, Vienna (1995).

     

    1. 2.    W.C. Eckman, B.M. Coursey, “Technetium-99m generators, chemistry and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals,” Int J Appl Radiat. Isot. 33, 793-890 (1982).

     

    1. 3.    R.E. Boyd, “Recent developments in generators of 99mTc,” Radiopharmaceuticals & labelled compounds 3-26 (1973).

     

    1. 4.    R.E. Boyd, “Technetium-99m generators- the available options,” Int. J. Appl Radiat. Isot, 33, 801-810 (1982).

     

    1. 5.    W.H. Briner, C.C. Harris, “Radionuclide contamination of eluates from fission-product molybdenum-technetium generators,” J. Nuc. Med, 15, 466-467 (1974).

     

    1. 6.    E. Shikata, A. Iguchi, “Production of 99Mo and its application in nuclear medicine,” Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, 102 (2), 533–550 (1986).

     

    1. 7.    R.K. Barnes, R.E. Boyd, “The chromatographic extraction and purification of 99Mo from uranium solution,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 33, 479-481 (1982).

     

    1. 8.    J.V. Evans, P.W. Moore, M.E. Shying, J.M. Sodeau, “Zirconium Molybdate Gel as generator for Technetium-99m I. The concept and its evaluation,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 38 (1), 19–23 (1987).

     

    1. 9.    M.T. El Kolaly, “A 99Mo-99mTc generator based on the use of zirconium molybdophosphate-99Mo gel,” J. Radioanal, Nucl. Chem, Articles 170 (2), 293–298 (1993).

     

    1. 10.              M.A. Absy, M. El Nagar, A.I. Audah, “Technetium-99m generators based on neutron irradiated 12-molybdocerate as column matrix,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, Articles 183 (2), 339–350 (1994).

     

    1. 11.              Y.F. Shafiq, Z.M. Yousif, “Characteristics and Behavior of a 99Mo/99mTc Generator using irradiated Titanium Molybdate as column matrix,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, letters 199 (3) 173-181 (1995).

     

     

     

     

    1. R.E. Boyd, “Gel generator: a viable alternative source of 99mTc for nuclear medicine,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48 (8), 1027–1033 (1997).

       

    2. F. Monroy-Guzmán, L.V. Díaz-Archundia, A. Contreras Ramírez, “Effect of Zr:Mo ratio on 99mTc generator performance based on zirconium molybdate gels,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 59 (1), 27-34 (2003).

       

    3. P.L. Brown, G.R. Erickson, J.V. Evans, “The chemical characterization of zirconium Molybdate gels,” Colloids and Surfaces, 62 (1-2), 11-21 (1992).

       

    4. M.R. Davarpanah, S. Attar Nosrati, M. Fazlali, M. Kazemi Boudani, H. Khoshhosn, M. Ghannadi Maragheh, “Influence of drying conditions of zirconium molybdate gel on performance of 99mTc gel generator,” J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 67 (10), 1796-1801 (2009).

       

    5. C. Duval, “Inorganic Thermogravimetric Analysis,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 315  (1963).

       

    6. W.B. Blumenthal, “The Chemical Behaviour of Zirconium,” D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc, Canada, 164–200 (1958).